Cannabis is not only the most abused illicit drug in the united states buy weed online Europe (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004; NIDA, 2010) it is in fact the most abused illegal drug worldwide (UNODC, 2010). In the united states it is a schedule-I substance which means that it is legally considered as having no medical use and it is highly habit forming (US DEA, 2010). Doweiko (2009) explains that not all cannabis has abuse potential. He therefore suggests using the common verbiage Marijuana when referring to cannabis with abuse potential. For the sake of clarity this verbiage is used in this paper as well.
Today, Marijuana has reached the attention of international controversy debating the appropriateness of its widespread illegal status. In many Union states it has become legalized for medical purposes. This trend is known as “medical Marijuana ” and is strongly applauded by advocates while simultaneously loathed harshly by opponents (Dubner, 2007; Nakay, 2007; Jeep Tuyl, 2007). It is in this context that it was decided to choose the topic of the physical and pharmacological effects of Marijuana for the basis of this research article.
What is Marijuana?
Marijuana is a plant more correctly called cannabis sativa. As mentioned, some cannabis sativa plants do not have abuse potential and are called hemp. Hemp is used widely for various fiber products including newspaper and artist’s canvas. Cannabis sativa with abuse potential is what we call Marijuana (Doweiko, 2009). It is interesting to note that although widely studies for many years, there is a lot that researchers still are not aware of about Marijuana. Neuroscientists and biologists know what the effects of Marijuana are but they still do not completely understand why (Hazelden, 2005).
Deweiko (2009), Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs (2004) point out that of approximately 500 known chemicals found in the cannabis plants, researchers know of over sixty miles per hour that are thought to have psychoactive effects on the mental faculties. The most well known and potent of these is â-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. Like Hazelden (2005), Deweiko states that while we know many of the neurophysical effects of THC, the reasons THC produces these effects are unclear.
As a psychoactive substance, THC directly affects the central nervous system (CNS). It affects a massive range of neurotransmitters and catalyzes other biochemical and enzymatic activity as well. The CNS is stimulated when the THC activates specific neuroreceptors in the brain causing the various physical and emotional reactions that is expounded on more specifically further on. The only substances that can activate neurotransmitters are substances that mimic chemicals that the brain produces naturally. The fact that THC stimulates brain function teaches scientists that the brain has natural cannabinoid receptors. It is still unclear why humans have natural cannabinoid receptors and how they work (Hazelden, 2005; Martin, 2004). What we do know for sure is that Marijuana will stimulate cannabinoid receptors up to twenty times more actively than any of the bodies natural neurotransmitters ever could (Doweiko, 2009).
Perhaps the biggest mystery of all is the relationship between THC and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin receptors are among the most stimulated by all psychoactive drugs, but most specifically alcohol and cigarette smoking. Independent of Marijuana is the reason relationship with the chemical, serotonin is already a little understood neurochemical and its supposed neuroscientific roles of functioning and purpose are still mostly hypothetical (Schuckit & Tapert, 2004). What neuroscientists have found definitively is that Marijuana smokers have very high numbers of serotonin activity (Hazelden, 2005). I would hypothesize that it may be this relationship between THC and serotonin that explains the ” Marijuana maintenance program” of achieving abstinence from alcohol and allows Marijuana smokers to avoid painful alienation symptoms and avoid cravings from alcohol. The efficacy of ” Marijuana maintenance” for helping alcohol abstinence is not scientific but is a phenomenon I have personally witnessed with numerous clients.
Interestingly, Marijuana mimics so many neurological reactions of other drugs that it is extremely difficult to classify in a specific class. Researchers will stick it in any of these categories: psychedelic; hallucinogen; or serotonin inhibitor. It has properties that mimic similar chemical answers as opioids. Other chemical answers mimic stimulants (Ashton, 2001; Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004). Hazelden (2005) classifies Marijuana in a special class – cannabinoids. The reason for this confusion is the complexness of the numerous psychoactive properties found within Marijuana, both known and unknown. One recent client I saw could not recover from the visual distortions he suffered as a result of pervasive psychedelic use as long as he was still smoking Marijuana. This seemed to be as a result of the psychedelic properties found within active cannabis (Ashton, 2001). Although not strong enough to produce these visual distortions untreated, Marijuana was strong enough to prevent the brain from healing and recovering.
Cannibinoid receptors are generally throughout the brain thus impacting on a wide variety of functioning. The most important on the emotional level is the stimulation of the brain’s nucleus accumbens perverting the brain’s natural reward centers. Another is that of the amygdala which controls one’s emotions and fears (Adolphs, Trane, Damasio, & Damaslio, 1995; Jeep Tuyl, 2007).
I have observed that the heavy Marijuana smokers who I work with personally apparently share a commonality of using the drug to manage their fury. This statement has confirmed based consequences and is the basis of much scientific research. Research has in fact found that the relationship between Marijuana and managing fury is clinically significant (Eftekhari, Turner, & Larimer, 2004). Fury is a defense mechanism used to guard against emotional consequences of adversity supported by fear (Cramer, 1998). As stated, fear is a primary function controlled by the amygdala which is heavily stimulated by Marijuana use (Adolphs, Trane, Damasio, & Damaslio, 1995; Jeep Tuyl, 2007).
Neurophysical Effects of THC:
Neurological messages between transmitters and receptors not only control emotions and psychological functioning. It is also how the body controls both volitional and nonvolitional functioning. The cerebellum and the basal ganglia control all body movement and coordination. These are two extremely abundantly stimulated areas of the brain that are triggered by Marijuana. This explains Marijuana is the reason physiological effect causing altered blood pressure (Van Tuyl, 2007), and a worsening of the muscles (Doweiko, 2009). THC ultimately affects all neuromotor activity to varying degrees (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004).
An interesting phenomena I have witnessed in almost all clients who identify Marijuana as their drug of choice is the use of Marijuana smoking before eating. This is explained by effects of Marijuana on the “CB-1” receptor. The CB-1 receptors in the brain tend to be found heavily in the limbic system, or the nucleolus accumbens, which controls the reward pathways (Martin, 2004). These reward pathways are what affect the appetite and eating habits within the bodies natural emergency instinct, causing us to crave eating food and rewarding us with dopamine when we finally do (Hazeldon, 2005). Martin (2004) makes this connection, pointing out that unique to Marijuana users is the stimulation of the CB-1 receptor directly triggering the appetite.
What is high grade and low grade?
A current client of acquire explains how he originally reviewed up to fifteen joints of “low grade” Marijuana daily but eventually switched to “high grade” when the low grade was needs to prove ineffective. In the end, fifteen joints of high grade Marijuana were becoming ineffective for him as well. He often failed to get his “high” from that either. This entire process occurred within five years of the client’s first ever experience with Marijuana. What is high and low grade Marijuana, and why would Marijuana commence to lose its effects after a few years?
The effectiveness of Marijuana is measured by the THC content within. As the market on the street becomes more competitive, the effectiveness on the street becomes more pure. This has caused a trend in ever rising effectiveness that does respond to demand. One average joint of Marijuana reviewed today has the equivalent THC effectiveness as ten average joints of Marijuana reviewed during the 1960’s (Hazelden, 2005).
THC levels depends mainly about what perhaps the cannabis leaf is being used for production. For instance cannabis sprouts can be between two to nine times more potent than fully developed leaves. Hash oil, a form of Marijuana manufactured by distilling cannabis resin, can yield higher numbers of THC than even high grade sprouts (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004).
The need to raise the amount of Marijuana one smoking cigarettes, or the need to intensify from low grade to high grade is known clinically as tolerance. The brain is efficient. As it acknowledges that neuroreceptors are usually now being stimulated without the neurotransmitters emitting those chemical signals, the brain resourcefully brings down its chemical output so the total levels are back to normal. The smoker will not feel the high anymore as his brain is now “tolerating” the higher numbers of chemicals and he or she is back to feeling normal. The smoker now raises the dose to get the old high back and the cycle continues. The smoker may find switching up in grades effective for a while. Eventually the brain can cease to produce the chemical altogether, entirely relying on the unnatural version being taken (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004; Hazelden, 2005).
Why isn’t there any alienation?
The flip side of the tolerance process is known as “dependence. ” As the body stops producing a natural chemicals, it now needs the Marijuana user to continue smoking in order to continue the functioning of chemicals without interruption. The body is now ordering the consumption of the THC making it extremely difficult to give up. In fact, studies show that Marijuana reliance is even more powerful than secured in a dark harder drugs like cocaine (Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004).
With quitting other drugs like stimulants, opioids, or alcohol the body acts in negative and sometimes severely dangerous ways. This is due to the sudden lack of chemical input tied together with the fact that the brain has stopped a natural neurotransmission of those chemicals earlier. This is the phenomenon of alienation (Haney, 2004; Hazelden, 2005; Jaffe & Jaffe, 2004; Tabakoff & Hoffman, 2004).
While research has shown comparable alienation reactions is Marijuana users like alcohol or other drugs (Ashton, 2001), what I have witnessed many times in my personal interaction with clients is the apparent lack of alienation experienced by most Marijuana users. Of course they experience cravings, but they don’t report having the same neurophysical alienation reaction that the other drug users have. Some Marijuana smokers employ this as their final proof that Marijuana “is not a drug” and they should therefore not be subjugated to the same treatment and search for recovery efforts as other drug or alcohol abusers.
The reality is that the secured in a dark lack of good alienation is a product of the uniqueness of how the body stores THC. While alcohol and other drugs are out of a person’s system within a one to five days (Schuckit & Tapert, 2004), THC can take up to 30 days until it is fully expelled from the body (Doweiko, 2009). When THC is taken by the smoker, it is initially distributed very rapidly through the heart, bronchi, and brain (Ashton, 2001). THC however, is eventually became protein and becomes stored is body fat and muscle. This second process of storage in body fat reserve is a far slower process. When the user begins abstinence, fat stored THC begins its slow release back into the blood stream. While the rate of reentry into the bodies system is too slow to produce any psychoactive effects, it will assist in eliminating the former smoker through the alienation process in a more manageable and pain free manner. The more one smoking cigarettes the more one stores. The more body mass the smoker has, the more THC can be stored up as well (Doweiko, 2009). Thus, in very large clients I have seen it take up to 30 days before urine screens show a cleared THC level.
Similar to THC’s slow taper like cleansing is the slow rate of initial start of psychoactive response. Clients report that they just don’t get high smoking Marijuana right away – it takes them time for their bodied to get used to it before they feel the high. This is explained by the slow inclusion of THC into fatty tissue reaching peak concentrations in 4-5 days. As the THC begins to produce slowly into the blood stream, the physiological response will become heightened rapidly with every new smoking of Marijuana resulting in another high. As the user repeats this process and high numbers of THC accumulate within the body and continue to reach the brain, the THC is finally distributed to the neocortical, limbic, sensory, and motor areas that were detailed earlier (Ashton, 2001).
The neurology and neurophysiology of Marijuana has been described thus far. There are many physical components of Marijuana smoking as well. National Institute on Drug abuse (2010) reports that Marijuana smokers can have many of the same breathing problems as tobacco smokers including daily cough, phlegm production, more frequent good chest illness, and a heightened risk of lung infections. They quote research showing evidence that chronic Marijuana smokers, who do not smoke tobacco, have an overabundance health problems than non smokers because of breathing illnesses.
The definitive research revealing the significant negative biophysical health effects of Marijuana is not conclusive. We do know for sure that Marijuana smoke contains fifty to seventy percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke does (Ashton, 2001; Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004; NIDA, 2010). While some research shows that Marijuana smokers show dysregulated growth of epithelial cells in their lung tissue which can lead to cancer, other studies have shown no positive associations at all between Marijuana use and lung, higher breathing, or higher intestinal tract cancers (NIDA, 2010). Perhaps the most eye opening fact of all is that all experts agree that traditionally there has yet to be a single documented death reported purely as a result of Marijuana smoking (Doweiko, 2009; Gold, Frost-Pineda, & Jacobs, 2004; Nakaya, 2007; Jeep Tuyl, 2007).
Pharmacology – “Medical Marijuana “:
This last fact regarding the secured in a dark less harmful effects of Marijuana smoking even compared to legal drugs like alcohol and cigarette smoking is most often the very first quoted by proponents of legalizing Marijuana for its positive medical advantages (Dubner, 2007; Nakaya, 2007; Jeep Tuyl, 2007). Nakaya (2007) points to the secured in a dark positive effects of Marijuana on alzheimers, cancer, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, and AIDS. While not scientific, personal experiences of the positive relief of sufferers from chronic illness is quoted as benefits that are claimed to outweigh the uncomfortable side effects.
Jeep Tuyl (2007) states “almost all drugs – including those that are legal – pose greater perils to individual health and/or society than does Marijuana. ” She agrees that legalizing the smoking of Marijuana would not excuse the positive effects but posits still that the risks associated with smoking can be “mitigated by alternate passages of administration, such as vaporization” (pg. 22-23). The arguments point to clinically riskier drugs like opioids, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines that are administered by prescription on a daily basis. These drugs, like Vicodine, Xanex, or Ritalin, are internationally acceptable when deemed “medically necessary. “
Conclusion / Depiction:
While I am not comfortable weighing in on the controversy of the legalization of Marijuana, in conclusion of this research paper there are clear benefits for me as a practitioner. Alcohol too is quite legal, as is cigarette smoking, but for the addiction healthcare professional it is important to continue keeping a directive on the biopsychosocial considerations regarding the incorrect use of any substance. Because of the large lack of empirical knowledge regarding the neurobiological properties associated with exact brain functioning, a critical focus advancing will be keeping tabs on breakthrough discoveries in the neuroscience of THC and other cannabanoids. The discoveries of particular importance for current practice are the pathology of Marijuana is the reason relationship with emotional self-medication, tolerance, and most of all the alienation process. I have already begun to utilize the information of the physical and pharmacological effects of Marijuana expressed heretofore with personal success and look forward to continue utilizing even farther research to do the same.